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1900-01 Bet Khallaf

Type of fieldwork: 
Excavation
Director: 
Season summary: 

The region examined by Garstang's team in this season was about ten miles in length, encompassing the villages of Alawniyeh at one end and Bet Khallaf on the other, with El Mahasna in between. The team excavated:

  • A small Predynastic cemetery near to Alawniyeh labelled 'site L', and published graves number from 200-229 (only 45 tombs were excavated although 300 were estimated to be present).
  • A Predynastic habitation area, cut through by later Old kingdom to Middle Kingdom tombs, labelled 'site M' and divided by the excavators four portions M1-M4. Finds from the Predynastic settlement remains in area M1 were numbered 'S1' and those from M2 were labelled 'S2'. The published tombs were numbered between M1 and M560.
  • Also near Mahasna was an area labelled 'Site N', containing Late Old Kingdom to  Middle Kingdom burials
  • A Dynasty 3 cemetery where 5 large mastaba tombs were excavated near Bet Khallaf, labelled 'site K' and the tombs numbered 'K1-K5'. In the mastabas were found clay seal impressions of 3rd Dynasty kings, of Djoser and Sanakht and of  Queen Nimaathapi, as well as copper tools, flint tools, flint knives, scraper crescents, 780 jars and bowls with food and wine, and storage of grain in sacks. 
Relevant archive holdings: 
London, Petrie Museum of Egyptian Archaeology
Relevant publications: 

Catalogue of antiquities of the earliest dynasties: found by Prof. Flinders Petrie at Abydos, Mr Randall-MacIver at El Amrah (Egypt Exploration Fund) and Mr J. Garstang at Beit Khallaf (Egyptian Research Account), 1901; exhibited at University College, Gower Street, London, July 1st to 27th. 1901. London.

Garstang, John 1903. Maḥâsna and Bêt Khallâf. British School of Archaeology in Egypt and Egyptian Research Account [7] (7th year). London: Bernard Quaritsch.

Related excavations: 
Distribution destinations: